Mounting an ISO Image as a Filesystem

How to Put a "Running Job" in the Background.

You’re running a job at the terminal prompt, and it’s taking
a very long time. You want to put the job in the backgroud.

“CTL – z” Temporarily suspends the job
$ jobs This will list all the jobs
$ bg %jobnumber (bg %1) To run in the background
$ fg %jobnumber To bring back in the foreground

Need to kill all jobs — say you’re using several suspended
emacs sessions and you just want everything to exit.

$ kill -9 `jobs -p`

The “jobs -p” gives the process number of each job, and the
kill -9 kills everything. Yes, sometimes “kill -9″ is excessive
and you should issue a “kill -15″ that allows jobs to clean-up.
However, for exacs session, I prefer “kill -9″ and haven’t had
a problem.

Sometimes you need to list the process id along with job
information. For instance, here’s process id with the listing.

$ jobs -pl

Note you can also renice a job, or give it lower priority.

$ nice -n +15 find . -ctime 2 -type f -exec ls {} \; > last48hours
^z
$ bg

So above that was a ctl-z to suppend. Then, bg to run it in
the background. Now, if you want to change the priority lower
you just renice it, once you know the process id.

$ jobs -pl
[1]+ 29388 Running nice -n +15 find . -ctime 2 -exec ls -l {} \; >mout &

$ renice +30 -p 29388
29388: old priority 15, new priority 19

19 was the lowest priority for this job. You cannot increase
the priority unless you are root.

Sharing Directories Amoung Several Users

Several people are working on a project in “/home/share”
and they need to create documents and programs so that
others in the group can edit and execute these documents
as needed.

$ /usr/sbin/groupadd share
$ chown -R root.share /home/share
$ /usr/bin/gpasswd -a share
$ chmod 2775 /home/share

$ ls -ld /home/share
drwxrwsr-x 2 root share 4096 Nov 8 16:19 /home/share
^———- Note the s bit, which was set with the chmod 2775

$ cat /etc/group

share:x:502:chirico,donkey,zoe
… ^——- users are added to this group.

The user may need to login again to get access. Or, if the user is currently
logged in, they can run the following command:

$ su –

Note, the above step is recommended over “newgrp – share” since currently
newgrp in FC2,FC3, and FC4 gets access to the group but the umask is not
correctly formed.

As root you can test their account.

$ su – “You need to ‘-‘ to pickup thier environment ‘$ su – chirico’ ”

Note: SUID, SGID, Sticky bit. Only the left most octet is examined, and “chmod 755″ is used
as an example of the full command. But, anything else could be used as well. Normally
you’d want executable permissions.

Octal digit Binary value Meaning Example usage
0 000 all cleared $ chmod 0755 or chmod 755
1 001 sticky $ chmod 1755
2 010 setgid $ chmod 2755
3 011 setgid, sticky $ chmod 3755
4 100 setuid $ chmod 4755
5 101 setuid, sticky $ chmod 5755
6 110 setuid, setgid $ chmod 6755
7 111 setuid, setgid, sticky $ chmod 7755

A few examples applied to a directory below. In the first example all users in the group can
add files to directory “dirA” and they can delete their own files. Users cannot delete other
user’s files.

Sticky bit:
$ chmod 1770 dirA

Below files created within the directory have the group ID of the directory, rather than that
of the default group setting for the user who created the file.

Set group ID bit:
$ chmod 2755 dirB

Setting up 2 IP address on "One" NIC

Backing Up & Restoring MySQL database


The easy way to make a backup of a database is to use MySQL Backup. MySQL Backup is a Perl script that uses mysqldump, tar, and gzip. The documentation is in the script, and it’s simple to use. Starting at around line 104, comment out the three lines referencing CGI commands. These are for running backups from a Web browser, which is not a secure way to run the backups. The easiest thing to do is set everything up in the script, then run it automatically from a cron job. Anywhere a program or file is named, be sure to use the full absolute path name.

You’ll have the option to backup all tables, or to select certain ones. The backups are stored locally by default, and can be uploaded via FTP to another location. There is even an option to email the backups to whatever lucky soul is elected to receive them.

This cron job runs the script every midnight:

# crontab -e
0 0 * * * /usr/sbin/scripts/mysql_backup

Restoring a database from backup is done by redirecting the contents of the backup file to the original location:

# mysql -u nikesh -p [password] My_DB

How to Use MD5

Routing , NAT and Gateways in Linux

A router is a device that directs network traffic destined for an entirely different network in the right direction. For example, suppose your network is having the IP address range of 192.168.1.0/16 and you also have a different network which has a network addresses in range 192.168.2.0/16 . Note that these are ‘Class C’ network addresses which are subnetted. So for your computer ( on the network 192.168.1.0/16 ) to directly communicate between a computer in the network 192.168.2.0/16, you need a intermediary to direct the traffic to the destination network. This is achieved by a router.

Configuring Linux as a router

Linux can be effectively configured to act as a router between two networks. To activate routing functionality , you enable IP forwarding in Linux. This is how you do this:

# echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

Now you have enabled IP forwarding in Linux. Now make this change persistent across reboots by editing the file /etc/sysctl.conf and entering the following line:

#FILE : /etc/sysctl.conf

net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1

Optionally, after editing the above file, you may execute the command :

# sysctl -p

Note: For your linux machine to act as a router, you need two ethernet cards in your machine or you can also configure a single ethernet card to have multiple IP addresses.

What is a gateway?

Any device which acts as the path to or from your network to another network or the internet is considered to be a gateway. Let me explain this with an example: Suppose your computer, machine_B has an address 192.168.0.5 with default netmask. And another computer (machine_A) with an IP address 192.168.0.1 in your network is connected to the internet using a USB cable modem. Now if you want machine_B to send or recieve data destined for an outside network a.k.a internet, it has to direct it to machine_A first which forwards it to the internet. So machine_A acts as the gateway to the internet. Each machine needs a default gateway to reach machines outside the local network. You can set the gateway in machine_B to point to machine_A as follows:

# route add default gw machine_A

Or if DNS is not configured…

# route add default gw 192.168.0.1

Now you can check if the default gateway is set on machine_B as follows:

# route -n

Note: Additional routes can be set using route command. To make the changes persistent across reboots, you may edit the /etc/sysconfig/static-routes file to show the configured route.

What is NAT ?

Network Address Translation (NAT) is a capability of linux kernel where the source or destination address / port of the packet is altered while in transit.

This is used in situations where multiple machines need to access the internet with only one official IP address available. A common name for this is IP masquerading. With masquerading, your router acts as a OSI layer 3 or layer 4 proxy. In this case, Linux keeps track of the packet(s) journey so that during transmission and recipt of data, the content of the session remains intact. You can easily implement NAT on your gateway machine or router by using Iptables, which I will explain in another post.

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